Christchurch’s Countess – Léontine, Countess de la Pasture

To the inhabitants of colonial Nelson, Léontine, Countess de la Pasture was the epitome of Victorian refinement and manners. To her husband, Gerard Gustavus Ducarel, the fourth Marquis de la Pasture, she was his beloved Lily, a virtuous and noblewoman who possessed great strength and generously opened her hand and heart to the needy.

Léontine’s presence was warmly embraced by Nelson’s fledgling colonial society. She lent a sense of importance and class to the events she attended.

Leontine, Countess de la Pasture.
Leontine, Countess de la Pasture. Photo from Hossack family album.  [1]

In the Anglican stronghold of Christchurch, she may have received a different reception. Catholic and an aristocrat, Léontine’s presence in the city appeared less notable. She received little mention in the local newspapers during her time here, even though she was intriguing and glamorous in an otherwise pedestrian middle-class society.

The only reminder of the Countess’s life in Christchurch is a lonely weathered grey headstone standing above her burial plot in the Catholic section of the Barbadoes Street Cemetery. It is a sad reminder of a life that showed such promise and – no matter what station in life a person held – its fragility and brevity for many young colonial women.

A History of Valour
Portrait of Charles Standish, Leontine's father, drawn by Alfred, Count D'Orsay.
Portrait of Charles Standish, Leontine’s father, drawn by Alfred, Count D’Orsay.

Léontine was believed to be the only daughter of Charles Standish, the late Whig Member of Parliament for Wigan in England. Léontine’s family could trace their ancestry back through countless generations to Thurston de Standish in 1220. They had occupied their seat, Standish Hall, in Lancashire, England, since the Norman Conquest. Léontine’s ancestors had attended the youthful Richard III, commanded an army in France, fought heroically at the Battle of Agincourt, assisted Catherine of Aragon, and was knighted for valorous deeds.

Charles Standish, Léontine’s father, had been the one-time youthful companion of King George IV, when Prince Regent. Admiring Irish writer Maria Edgeworth described Standish at age 29 as ‘an exquisite, or tiptop dandy’ in a letter she wrote to a friend in 1819. Upon his death in 1863, he was succeeded by Charles Henry Widdrington Lionel Standish, Léontine’s eldest brother by twenty years. She also had another two older brothers: Charles Frederick Standish and Charles Edward Standish. The mother of the three boys, Emmeline-Conradine (née de Mathiesen), had died in 1831, over ten years before Léontine was born on 12th February 1842.

Léontine’s mother remains a mystery, as do the first two decades of her daughter’s life. She does not appear alongside her brothers in some published genealogical histories recording the landed gentry. Nor is she living in England with her father during the 1841 and 1851 England censuses. However, Léontine was the favoured great-niece of Lady Monica Gerard, wife of the 12th Baronet, Sir John Gerard.

Standish Hall, Lancashire. Drawn by J. P. Neale, engraved by W. Watkins, published in 1847 by Jones & Co Temple of Muses, Finsbury Square, London.
Standish Hall, Lancashire. Drawn by J. P. Neale, engraved by W. Watkins and published in 1847 by Jones & Co Temple of Muses, Finsbury Square, London.
A Marriage has been Arranged

Léontine lived for a time with her Great Aunt Monica at her home ‘Portobello House‘, in East Sheen. When she was twenty, a marriage was arranged to Gerard Gustavus Ducarel de la Pasture, who belonged to a noble French family who had escaped France during the revolution. The couple were betrothed at the Roman Catholic Chapel of St Mary Magdalene, Mortlake, East Sheen, Surrey. At twenty-one years of age, she became Countess de la Pasture, and the news of the couple’s union was announced in the fashionable papers of the day.

Married life for the Countess was not planned to be spent in England. Gerard and his brother, Henri, owned vast tracts of land in the South Island of New Zealand. A few months after their wedding, Léontine and Gerard sailed for the Antipodes. Léontine’s privileged upbringing would have done little to prepare her for the privations of life as a colonist’s wife. However, her upper-class education and social graces would make an impression on the pioneering provinces of Canterbury and Nelson. They embarked on what would be the longest journey of Léontine’s life on 27th October 1864. With one servant accompanying them, they settled into a first-class cabin on the 1,700 tonne S.S. London which was bound for Melbourne, Australia via Cape Town, South Africa.

The London sailed well and entered Hobson’s Bay in Melbourne on 2nd January of the following year. In Melbourne lived one of Léontine’s brothers, Charles Frederick Standish. Known as Frederick, he had served briefly in the Royal Artillery before taking leave of England in 1852 after suffering heavy losses gambling on horse racing. This coincided with gold being discovered in Victoria, and his military services were in demand by the newly formed Victorian Mounted Constabulary. He was appointed to one of the highest positions as Chief Commissioner of Police, a position he held until 1880.

Captain Standish, Leontine's brother, also known as 'Frederick Charles Standish' (1824–1883). Tatler, 11 June 1898, p. 31. Image: State Library of Victoria.
Captain Standish, Leontine’s brother, was also known as ‘Frederick Charles Standish’ (1824–1883). [2]
Pursuing the Ned Kelly Gang

A police constable contemporary described Frederick Standish as a ‘strange mixture of weakness and of strength’. His weaknesses led him to make the wrong types of friendships. He had a relationship – ‘almost pathetic to see’ – with a colleague called Frank Hare during Frederick’s time in Benalla, Victoria, when he was involved in the pursuit of the Kelly Gang.

Frederick also suffered peculiar irritability of temper, which this Police Constable described as ‘out of character’. This peculiarity was symptomatic of a mental condition that led to a breakdown some years later. [3]

Frederick also possessed great strengths that enabled him to hold on to his position as the Commissioner for so long. Unfortunately, it was a weakness for alcohol that brought about his demise, and he died from poisoning of the liver, heart disease and a softening of the brain in 1883. [4]

The Last Leg of a Long Journey

Count and Countess de la Pasture did not stay long in Melbourne. They soon boarded the S.S. Hero and set sail for Lyttelton via Otago, arriving in Lyttelton Harbour on 26 January 1865.

Léontine’s new home was a province where sheep outnumbered people 47 to 1. The Lyttelton tunnel still had 988 feet yet to be bored through, and drunk and disorderly’ and ‘cattle trespass’ was top of the bill at the Christchurch Magistrates Court. Politically, she arrived at the time when the question of separation for the North and Middle (South) Islands of New Zealand was under discussion. 

Locally, the continued lack of Council action on the city’s drainage, where ‘noxious discharges’ from areas like the Triangle contributed to the spread of disease and death in the city, was being argued in the ‘Press’.

Small items of intrigue also caused titters over the teacups. A Lyttelton solicitor named Mr Press was due before the Lyttelton Magistrates for bathing at Dampier Bay without his ‘draws’ and ‘exposing his person’.[5]

Portobello House in East Sheen was the home of Lady Gerard, Leontine's aunt - a Catholic noble woman of rank. "Lady Constantia Mostyn lived here from 1842 to1849. She was a Roman Catholic and as at that time there was no nearby church to attend she fitted up a hayloft as a place of worship." Source: Barnes & ortlake History Society.
Portobello House in East Sheen was the home of Lady Gerard, Leontine’s aunt – a Catholic noble woman of rank. This image shows the house ten years before it was demolished in 1893. [6]
A Noble Woman’s Legacy

Not long after her arrival, Léontine received news that her sixty-year-old great aunt had passed away on the 4th May 1865 while taking the sea air at Brighton. Lady Gerard’s home, Portobello House, the furniture, plate and wines were all left to her brother-in-law. Léontine was appointed residuary legatee, which meant that she received the residue of her aunt’s estate.

Frederick Standish, Leontine’s Australian-based brother, was left £100, as was Lady Monica’s long time maid, Elizabeth Haggerston. She also received her ladyship’s ‘wearing apparel’ and dividends for life of £1,200 ‘consols’ (bonds). Should Elizabeth die, this capital would pass to the Countess de la Pasture.

Léontine also received her aunt’s books, watches, ornaments of person, and other articles of vertu. Into Lyttelton on board the ‘South Australian‘ in December of 1865, alongside packages of machinery, boxes of tobacco, tea and cigars, came a package of goods for the Countess. 

Travelling from Christchurch to Nelson: ‘… impossible to ride over, and dangerous even to walk upon’

Each year the amount of passenger traffic along the line of road between Nelson and Canterbury increased. In 1865, the main road heading north out of Christchurch stopped at the Hurunui River. The lack of a bridge forced the coaching company Cobb & Co, to limit their services from Christchurch to just south of the river. Travellers had to make the crossing by ferry boat but the ferryman’s house was half a mile from the riverbank. It was “a matter of pure accident whether any traveller was seen by the ferryman”, so some, inevitably, forded the rapidly flowing and extremely dangerous river on their horses.

Up-country scene, Amuri, New Zealand, 1894. Tile b2 of Unnumbered Page of Album of the Boileau family's voyage from England to Australia in 1894-1895 [picture] 1894-1895. Source: National Library of Australia.
Shepherds, up-country scene, Amuri, New Zealand, 1894. [8]

After the crossing, the traveller had to round the extremities of the spurs of the Culverden Run into the gorge of the Waiau, through private land that was swampy and steep. In wet weather, it was only negotiable using heavy drays. Crossing the Waiau Bridge, they needed to travel over swampy ground and river bed to the foot of Jollie’s Pass. From there it went over the pass – ‘the ‘benchings’ from the top of the spur leading to Jollie’s Pass until the saddle inclining at an angle of at least 50 degrees, worn smooth by rain and traffic, “impossible to ride over, and dangerous even to walk upon”, down the Clarence through a succession of swamps and “atrociously bad” side cuttings, to the junction with the Acheron.

On the Nelson side of the Clarence was an accommodation house which in winter was kept empty, forcing those who could not cross when the river when swollen to take shelter overnight beneath rocks. Unaware of the depth, those who did cross had to swim with their horse, arriving on the other side drenched, to any empty accommodation house.

From there the traveller went up the course of the Acheron River to the Severn then to the Alma, a dangerous river, “the landing-place being so narrow and steep, and the river so rapid that, in case of a momentary failure of the horse to maintain its hold of the landing-place, horse and rider must be swept into the Severn.” From the Alma, a narrow valley was followed up to Saxton’s station.  Here “one false step, could bury your horse in a swamp, from which would be impossible to recover him from”. Then it was a matter of making it to White’s Accommodation House, through the Wairau Gorge, fording the river to the Rainbow Station, along the course of the Waiau where “the slightest mistake on the part of the horse on reaching the very narrow landing place on the lower side of the creek must inevitably result in the destruction of both horse and rider” to the Top House. Through the Big Bush Road “that horses are as chary of travelling over it as they would be over a dangerous swamp” to the Motupiko valley, crossing the range dividing the Motupiko and Motueka valleys, then crossing the range into the valley of the Wai-iti to join a road after the first crossing of that river.

Amuri Stations in 1867. Source: Amuri The County - Old Times and Old People by L. R. C. MacFarlane.
Amuri Stations in 1867. [9]

The ferry boat at the Motueka River had been ‘carried away’ some time ago, the rope to which it was attached having rotted away with no obligation on anyone to ensure that a “sound rope was kept”. Such was the journey in 1865 for those who travelled from Christchurch to Nelson overland rather than by sea. [10]

Under these conditions, Countess de la Pasture travelled to visit her husband’s and brother-in-law’s sheep stations at Amuri. The de la Pasture brothers had purchased the 63,000 acre Glynn Wye Station in the Waiau Gorge and 23 miles from Hanmer in 1860. They also owned the St. James, which was under the management of Scotsman Simon Hossack, and St. Helen’s, at the head of the Hanmer Plain, comprising 8,535 acres freehold, 28,938 leasehold, with 18,000 sheep and sundry cattle and horses. [11]

It would have been unusual for a lady to travel and stay at the isolated stations which offered no suitable accommodation. However, Countess de la Pasture travelled overland to the Amuri from Christchurch at least once. On their way north, the de la Pasture’s buggy was upset, and the Countess was thrown out into a creek just near Mouse Point, near Culverden. The scene of this accident then became known as Countess Creek. [12] In a letter to a friend, Léontine made reference to a similar accident that happened on Riccarton Road in Christchurch:

“Mr Wigley affected the capsize of his large American waggon the other day on the Riccarton Road, dislocated Mrs W’s elbow and sprained Miss & M?’s (illegible) ancle (sic) – better by far that they followed our precedent and upset into(?) the water.”

She may refer to Henry Thomas Wigley, who had the Balmoral Run at Hurunui and lived in Christchurch. He had come to New Zealand in 1860, taken up the run and married Mary Moorhouse, daughter of William Sefton Moorhouse, Canterbury’s first Superintendent. [13]

Accidents by land may well have been commonplace under such conditions, but it was a mishap at sea that Léontine most feared:

“In case of my accident by sea or land… I am afraid if it were the former we should both perish / let me hear (sic) put in writing that I wish everything I die possessed of, be it money, vitals books pictures articles of virtu and also a sum of money that will here after revert to me at Elizabeth Haggeston’s death to belong to my husband…” [14]

Roughing it With the Hired Help
The Amuri wool waggon (overlooking Marble point). [15]

Mid 19th century Canterbury Station life in Canterbury was a social and physical world away from life in London. On visits to his runs, the Count dined in the kitchen with his workers, former shepherds and ploughmen from the crofts of Scotland. ‘When he came up, he roughed it, as so many did in those days, having his meals in the kitchen with the station hands’. [16] Society for Léontine may have been equally limiting. Her closest female company were her domestic staff, who included Caroline Finlayson and Jane Wardsworth. Both women witnessed Léontine’s informally written will (excerpt above), which formed part of a newsy letter on local and station events which she had written to a friend.

Catherine Finlayson was one of many of that name from Ross-shire in the Highlands of Scotland. She arrived at Lyttelton on board the David G. Fleming in December 1863. An unmarried domestic servant, she travelled in the company of 267 others, mostly Scottish domestic servants, farm labourers, ploughmen and shepherds. Five years later she married fellow Scotsman Charles Hewson, a shepherd working in Geraldine. [17]

Simon Hossac, the future beau of Jane Wardsworth, had managed various station properties in North Canterbury during his colonial years, including the St. James property of Count de la Pasture. He was a native of Inverness-shire in Scotland and had arrived in New Zealand in 1858. After Count de la Pasture sold up in 1877, he became the manager at Ngapuri Estate in Fernside. In 1868, he and Jane married, and they lived at Fernside for over 15 years until it too was sold and cut up. They moved to Christchurch, where Hossack continued to superintend the annual shearing in several Amuri woolsheds.

Hossack had a weakness for drink and lots of it. In August 1883, a twelve-month prohibition order was issued by the Court in several districts preventing Hossack from being supplied with “intoxicating liquor”. In 1885, this “well-to-do farmer” was convicted four times in six months for drunkenness, and on his fifth conviction, he received fourteen days of hard labour and a stay in Addington Gaol, which he had to pay for himself.

This didn’t prove a deterrent. By February 1891, he had chalked up fourteen previous convictions and continued to add to the tally through to the end of 1893. [18]

Hossack died in Christchurch Hospital after a “short illness” on 16 July 1898, but his long term illness had been alcoholism. Despite this, Jane had stood by him, probably out of duty, respectability and necessity. Three days later, at her home in Haast Street, Linwood, Jane died suddenly, aged 63. “The news of her husband’s decease in the Hospital on Saturday seems to have provoked a brain trouble which brought about a collapse”. Since moving to Christchurch, she had suffered from neuralgia brought about deafness. No doubt she had relied on her husband, her companion of 30 years. [19]

Sir George Grey, photo taken in the 1860s during the period in which Countess de la Pasture made his acquaintance. Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Libraries, 589-61
Sir George Grey, photo taken in the 1860s during the period in which Countess de la Pasture made his acquaintance. [22]
The Governor and the Countess

In Nelson, the Countess resided for many months at a luxurious boarding establishment called Panama House. It hosted such dignitaries as Governor Sir George Grey at around the same time as the de la Pasture’s stay. Panama House would later host HRH, the Duke of Edinburgh on his royal tour of New Zealand in 1869). “During this time she contrived by her amiable disposition, her numerous charities, and her fascinating manners to endear herself to a large circle of friends and acquaintances.” [20] Lily was given the honour of dining with Sir George Grey on the 25th of October 1867. Without her husband to escort her, she would have relied on her societal upbringing to see her through an evening in the company of His Lordship, the Bishop of Wellington and a host of Justices and their wives.[21]

Invited to help present sporting awards at Nelson College, the Countess sat at a table surrounded by the prizes, distributing them to the winners and remarking on each boy’s achievements. At the close of the ceremony, she was rewarded with “three hearty cheers” from the boys. [23]

Like many ladies of the upper echelons of society, the Countess had studied music and was able to entertain Nelsonians with her musical accomplishments on the pianoforte. It is no wonder that she earned the admiration of Nelsonians. [24]

Return to Christchurch

Returning to Christchurch, the Count and Countess took up residence at Springfield in Papanui Road, sometime after December 1868, when the widowed Mrs David Innes had moved out. Part of the “earliest selections”, Springfield was a large homestead comprised of fifteen rooms, commodious outbuildings and stables, on five acres of high dry land, with a good system of drainage and water supply. It would have been a very commodious and luxurious accommodation for Christchurch at the time.

At Springfield, on 7th April 1869, Countess de la Pasture gave birth to the couple’s first child, a daughter. Whilst Lily had always feared death by drowning, childbirth took her life the following day. At 26, Countess de la Pasture was laid to rest with a Catholic ceremony at Barbadoes Street Cemetery.

The couple’s baby was christened Monica Lily, in honour of her mother’s favourite great aunt and in memory of the mother she would never know.

As per her wishes, Lily’s estate was passed to her husband. Valued at under £400, it consisted mostly of personal items. [25] Elizabeth Haggerston, then aged 62, was still alive, outlasting her previous employer’s much younger niece, Léontine. [26]

For the newly-widowed Gerard, the grief must have been tremendous. Within a month of burying his beloved wife, Gerard sold the household furniture and effects, a buggy, a pair of “his and her mares”, a quiet chestnut pony, hay, oats, wheat and 50 fat sheep. [27]

Life After Lily

Four years would go by before Gerard married again, to Georgina Mary Loughnan at the Catholic Church in Christchurch in May 1874. Georgina was the daughter of Robert James Loughnan, a former judge in the service of the British East India Company who had arrived in New Zealand in 1868 and settled at a home named ‘Tilford‘ on Ferry road.[28]

The Count had been spending his time between his run in Magdalene Valley and his residence in Opawa, Christchurch, located “opposite the church”.

During his time in the Amuri, the Count was appointed Justice of the Peace and was called upon to act as Coroner several times. He did so in 1870, when Samuel Gilmour, who had been doing some cob work on the Waiau station of Edgar Jones, broke into a locked storeroom and consumed a two-gallon jar of brandy, drinking himself to death. Also at Hanmer Springs in 1872, when 18-month-old Robert Dillon fell on a stone and fractured his skull.

Before Léontine’s death, the Count was elected in 1866 to the Amuri Road Board where he served until his resignation in 1873. This may have signalled his removal from Amuri to Christchurch. Later in the year, he was elected onto the board of the Catholic Schools in Barbadoes street, alongside his soon-to-be Loughnan in-laws.

Monica Lily Ducarel. Source: Treasures of Kinloch Castle

In August of 1874, having been married just over a year, the Count sold his household furniture and effects from his Opawa residence and moved, most likely to the Loughnan family home, Tilford.

At Tilford, the second Countess gave birth to their first child on March 25th, 1878. Sadly it was another tragic birth. The baby girl christened Mary, died the day she was born. Once again, the Count announced a birth and death in the same column of the Colonial newspapers. This event led to a return to England.

One year later, the de la Pasture family announced the birth of their first son at Caley Hall, Otley in Yorkshire. The Count and Countess do not appear to have returned to New Zealand again, although the Countess still owned commercial property on High Street. [29]

The Glamorous Lady Bullough
Leontine's daughter, Monica Bullough, by Hugh Goldwin Riviere One of a pair of portraits, the other being of Sir George Bullough, Lady Bullough’s husband, each being a 40th birthday gift to the other. Lady Bullough is portrayed seated in the Great Hall at Kinloch Castle. Source ; Kinloch Castle, Rum (Scottish Natural Heritage), Image: BBC.
Leontine’s daughter, Monica Bullough, by Hugh Goldwin Riviere
One of a pair of portraits, the other being of Sir George Bullough, Lady Bullough’s husband, each being a 40th birthday gift to the other. Lady Bullough is portrayed seated in the Great Hall at Kinloch Castle. [30]

No story of Léontine, Countess de la Pasture would be complete without a postscript about her glamorous famous daughter.

Monica grew up to be a beauty – tall, glamorous, strong-willed and, according to social gossip, promiscuous. This trait would have no doubt distressed her Roman Catholic parents. In 1889, she married Charles Charrington, heir to the Charrington brewery fortune and ten years her senior. The birth of daughter Dorothea followed the following year.

The Count and Countess de la Pasture lived for a time in Brighton, and it was here that Monica’s very fashionable wedding took place. The ball that followed was attended by a crowd of nobility and titled gentry and included members of the Christchurch Loughnan family. “The presents were numerous and costly.” The happy couple left in the afternoon for Paris and the Riviera for a “lengthy honeymoon tour”. [31]

Whilst still married to Charrington, Monica supposedly had an affair with the handsome, wealthy and equally promiscuous Scotsman George Bullough. He was the son of an industrialist and enjoyed racehorses and sailing. George was said to have been found in bed with his father’s young bride and was promptly exiled to the family yacht, Rhouma. This exile couldn’t have been a hardship as the Rhouma was “a luxurious, 221 ft long, steam yacht, big enough for a cricket pitch and whose 40-strong crew included an orchestra and personal photographer”.

Lady Bullough and her daughter, Hermione. Source: Art Treasures of Kinloch Castle.

Bullough was named co-respondent in the Charrington’s 1903 divorce. Just a month later, George and Monica married in a lavish and fashionable wedding, and Monica’s second daughter, Hermione, followed.

There is also a Royal twist to this tale. One story suggests that Edward VII had a penchant for Monica, and Charrington wanted the King named in his divorce proceedings. To cover for the King, long-time bachelor George Bullough was named as co-respondent and rewarded with a knighthood.

Monica’s name was also attached to another divorce case, that of Earl Cowley and his beautiful young society wife, Violet, which hit the papers throughout the Empire in 1896. The affair, which was said to have begun in 1892, was not proven. Nevertheless, Violet was granted her divorce on the grounds of “other offences”. [32]

“…and then Mrs Charrington went into the box, looking very fresh and young and charming, and gave an emphatic denial to the charge of impropriety with Earl Cowley. She was not cross examined. From what I can hear Mm Charrington has been dragged into this case in an unjustifiable manner, and much sympathy is felt for her. She saw no more of Earl Cowley than was natural with two persons absorbed in hunting and attending the same meets day after day. Usually he gave her a lead—especially over new ground —and sometimes she asked him home to tea with her. Never did he stay more than an hour, and the card on the boudoir door saying Mrs Charrington was engaged and must not be disturbed was always there. The servants’ evidence was tainted and wholly unreliable. On Tuesday Lady Cowley was granted a decree nisi, with costs and the custody of the child.”

“London Gossip.” [33]

During the hunting season, Sir George and Lady Monica Bullough resided at Kinloch Castle, a magnificent late Victorian mansion built in 1900 on the Isle of Rùm. They would entertain lavishly and separately – both male and female companions.

Monica undoubtedly lived an exciting life, unashamedly decadent and privileged. Born into tragedy in the emerging colonial city of Christchurch, she died in London in 1967, aged 98.

“According to an otherwise unauthenticated tale…, Lady Bullough was told in her nineties to take more exercise. “In reply, she would climb a stack of empty champagne cases and swing from a metal bar in her bathroom, whilst the butler would kick the cases from under her feet”. There is probably not a shred of truth in the story, but it does indicate willingness to believe such things of her.” [34]

  1. Kindly supplied by Janet Connochie, a descendent of the Hossack’s only daughter.
  2. Tatler, 11 June 1898, p. 31. Image: State Library of Victoria.
  3. Recollections of a Victorian Police Officer, by John Sadler.
  4. DEATH OF CAPTAIN STANDISH. (1883, March 20). The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1956), p. 6.
  5. SEPARATION.Lyttelton Times, Volume XXIII, Issue 1351, 26 January 1865, Page 5. PROVINCIAL INTELLIGENCE. Colonist, Volume VIII, Issue 758, 27 January 1865, Page 3 Lyttelton Times, Volume XXIII, Issue 1352, 28 January 1865, Page 4 Press, Volume VII, Issue 701, 27 January 1865, Page 3 THE DRAINAGE OF CHRISTCHURCH. Press, Volume VII, Issue 702, 28 January 1865, Page 4 THE CENSUS OF CANTERBURY. Lyttelton Times, Volume XXIII, Issue 1352, 28 January 1865, Page 4.
  6. Barnes & Mortlake History Society.
  7. The Pall Mall Gazette, June 27, 1865 and Shipping Imports, Press, Volume VIII, Issue 975, 22 December 1865, Page 2.
  8. Tile b2 of Unnumbered Page of Album of the Boileau family’s voyage from England to Australia in 1894-1895 [picture] 1894-1895. Source: National Library of Australia.
  9. Amuri The County – Old Times and Old People by L. R. C. MacFarlane.
  10. THE ROAD FROM CANTERBURY TO NELSON. Letter from Mr. W. T. L. Travers, dated Nelson, June 1, 1865, to the Nelson Examiner. Lyttelton Times, Volume XXIII, Issue 1413, 15 June 1865, Page 2.
  11. endnote Whilst Henri spent most of his time out of New Zealand, travelling the globe, it was Gerard who remained a fairly constant figure in the running of the stations. He would later become a Justice of the Peace, and a member of the Amuri Road Board, until he sold St Helen’s in 1877. Sources: Colin Wheeler, Historic sheep stations of the South Island, 1968, Wellington, Reed. The Amuri a County History, by W. J. Gardner.
  12. Place names of New Zealand – Page 238 Alexander Wyclif Reed.
  13. Taranaki Herald, Volume XLIV, Issue 10339, 21 June 1895, Page 2.
  14. Source a  letter to a friend which also forms her will, dated before 1868, NZ Archives Christchurch.
  15. Date unknown. Source: Hurunui Kete
  16. Source: “The Amuri A County History’ by W. J. Gardner quoting ‘Autobiography of An Early Settler in New Zealand’ by Edgar Jones, who arrived in 1867 and took up the Upper Wairau Run in the Amuri.
  17. ‘List of Immigrants by the David G. Fleming’ Press, Volume III, Issue 347, 10 December 1863, Page 2. Catherine Finlayson and Charles Hewson married 28 March 1868, at St Andrews Church, Christchurch, she was a 24 year old domestic servant (b. 1844), her bridegroom, a shepherd of 25. Witnesses: David Souter, Christchurch, clerk and Jane Lee, householder, Christchurch. In 1873, Hewson was at Creek Station; in 1878, he was a shepherd in Geraldine on William Postlethwaite’s farm, and he ran Richmond Farm in Geraldine, 1882. Catherine died, age 50 at Maori Hill, Timaru, 2nd Feb 1893.
  18. MAGISTERIAL. Star, Issue 7093, 19 February 1891, Page 3.
  19. OBITUARY. Star , Issue 6233, 18 July 1898, Page 2. ‘Mrs Hossack’ Press, Volume LV, Issue 10093, 20 July 1898, Page 5.
  20. Nelson Evening Mail, Volume IV, Issue 82, 9 April 1869, Page 2
  21. Evening Post, Volume III, Issue 220, 28 October 1867, Page 2.
  22. Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Libraries, 589-61.
  23. Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, Volume XXVI, Issue 141, 23 November 1867, Page 3.
  24. St Mary’s Schools Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, Volume XXVII, Issue 8, 18 January 1868, Page 4.
  25. St Mary’s Schools Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, Volume XXVII, Issue 8, 18 January 1868, Page 4.
  26. Elizabeth Haggertson was born in Yorkshire abt 1807. In her later years she returned to the region of her birth. She died in early December, 1883, leaving only £24. 4s. 10d. Her sole executor was a Railway Clerk by the name of Richard Seddon, from East Sheen.
  27. Press, Volume XIV, Issue 1898, 15 May 1869, Page 3.
  28. DeLapasture –  Loughnan. May 20, at the Catholic Church, Christchurch, the Count de Lapasture, to Georgina Mary, daughter of R. J. Loughnan, Esq. Source: Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, Volume XXXII, Issue 43, 28 May 1873.
  29. ‘Births. De Lapasture – March 25, at Tilford, the Countess De Lapasture, of a daughter.’ ‘Death. De Lapasture – March 25, at Tilford, Mary, the infant daughter of the Count and Countess De Lapasture.’ Colonist, Volume XX, Issue 2369, 2 April 1878, Page 2. Press, Volume XXIX, Issue 3955, 28 March 1878, Page 2. And ‘Births, Deaths, Marriages and Obituaries’. The Standard (London, England), Monday, September 22, 1879; pg.1; Issue 17213. 19th Century British Library Newspapers: Part II
  30. Source: Kinloch Castle, Rum (Scottish Natural Heritage), Image: BBC.
  31. FASHIONABLE MARRIAGE AT BRIGHTON. New Zealand Tablet, Volume XVII, Issue 4, 17 May 1889, Page 29.
  32. “THE END OF THE COWLEY CASE.” The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 – 1954) 19 Apr 1897.
    “COWLEY DIVORCE SUIT.” Lloyd’s Weekly Newspaper (London, England), Sunday, January 31, 1897; Issue 2828.
  33. Auckland Star, Volume XXVIII, Issue 71, 27 March 1897, Page 4.
  34. “Assessment of Historical, Architectural and Social Significance” (Kinloch Castle), prepared by Michael Davis, Glasgow Building Preservation Trust.

One Comment Add yours

  1. Peter Grant says:

    Wendy – it is great to see this information all together in one place and especially to see a photo of the Countess, as I had not seen one before. We live at St Helens Homestead near Hanmer Springs; the 1917 Homestead sitting on the site of the Count’s original homestead, and I have of course been very interested in the history of St Helens Station since we purchased the Homestead. Every time we drive over the bridge over the Countess Stream on the way into Culverden, I think of the story of the Countess and her accident! So thank you once again.


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