As Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee drew near in 1897, plans were being put in place throughout the Dominion for suitable commemorative projects.
In Christchurch, a number of funds were set up and subscriptions solicited from the people in support of their favoured project:
- Enlarging the Jubilee Home for the Aged in Woolston;
- Establishing the five acre Victoria Lake in Hagley Park;
- A £2000 improvement of the Cashmere Hills Domain; 
- The erection of the long abandoned Clock Tower at a cost of £500.
The Mayor of Christchurch at this time, Mr W. H. Cooper, supported the idea of a municipal clock with a chime of bells, which could be erected either on the South Belt or in Latimer Square. However not everyone shared his view. One councillor named Powell was less than enthusiastic, commenting he “would be sorry to see such an important occasion celebrated by the formation of a stagnant pool in Hagley Park or the erection of a clock tower”. 
However the Clock Tower proved to be a popular project, with £100 raised in the first two days of the fund being announced. Christchurch people had seen and long regretted the waste of such an ornate structure, which had “lain in the City Council rubbish yard… a breeding place for sparrows and a haunt for vagrant rats.”  The City Council yards occupied the space opposite the Clarendon Hotel, where the Scott Memorial was later erected.
The general understanding of the origins of the clock tower was that it had been presented as a gift to the citizens of Christchurch by New Zealand’s Premier, Sir George Grey, when he was the governor of the colony in 1879. The clock tower was designed by Christchurch architects, Mountfort and Luck prior to 1860, and was purchased by the Provincial Government however became the property of the New Zealand government when the provincial governments were abolished. Grey had simply agreed to let the city have a structure which had previously been the property of the province of Canterbury.
A Clock Tower for the Provincial Buildings
The clock tower was originally designed for the Provincial Government Building. £800 had been “set aside by the Council for its construction. It was to form a principal feature in the design of the Government buildings – to be of iron, and made ornamental. The design would be transmitted to the agent in England, and he would be instructed to procure it.”  Three years later the expenditure was increased to £1000, but it was not enough to cover the clock tower’s construction. 
When the trader Matoaka arrived from Bristol on December 1st, 1860 carrying new immigrants to the Canterbury settlement, it also brought 142 crates packed with pieces of the long awaited clock tower for Mountfort and Luck.
The clock tower was fraught with difficulties from the beginning. It was unpacked and half erected in the courtyard of the Provincial buildings,“as a child puts up a new toy – just to look at it”. 
Its distinctive spire and iron work can be seen in photographs of the Provincial buildings taken in 1861.
The Iron Clock Tower
We are glad to see that a vote has been taken for erecting the iron clock tower which stands in the court yard of the Government Buildings. The vote appears to have met with some opposition, especially from Mr. Templer, who characterized the tower as a flimsy structure. This opinion is a very natural one to have arisen from looking at the tower as it now stands. For what earthly purpose it was half erected in the present form we have never been able to divine, unless it were to waste money and to destroy the tower. If Mr. Templer could realize that when complete it will look entirely solid – that the sides will be entirely filled with encaustic tiles, displaying a graceful pattern – that the face of the clock will be composed of white glazed tile work, throwing out the iron fingers and hands into strong relief – he will probably be of a different opinion, and will think the design is one of considerable beauty. This tower has been unfortunate from its birth.
It was designed originally by Messrs. Mountfort and Luck, the Government architects, and the design was sent to England to be executed by Mr. Skidmore, of Coventry, under the superintendence of Mr. Cranstone, an architect in Birmingham. The two latter gentlemen, however, could not bring the design of the colonial architects, which was estimated by them at £800, within the sum of £2800. This tender the English agent very properly refused to accept; and it was finally arranged that Messrs. Cranstone & Skidmore were to prepare a design for a tower as nearly like Messrs. Mountfort and Luck’s as possible, which could be constructed for about the sum of £800. The tower now in the Government Buildings is the result of this design; and the cost was £1000 with a discount of ten per cent, for cash.
But amongst other alterations proposed by Mr. Skidmore was one that the iron should not be galvanized, but should be painted with Sczerelemy’s granitic composition, which he described as being quite impenetrable to all decaying influences. The Count Sczerelemy had been taken up by Sir Charles Barry, who had employed him to paint the extensive iron roofs of the palace at Westminster, it was said with complete success. The paint invented by him was stated to be very durable, in short almost imperishable; and to admit of being colored in any manner required for purposes of ornament. Mr. Skidmore undertook to paint the whole of the clock tower before putting it together, with two coats of the granitic composition, and to send out a third coat to be applied after the tower was erected. So far as we can judge from inspection the tower has been painted with one coat of common oil-paint: at all events it is certain there was no paint sent out for the third coat as required by the contract.
The tower was very badly packed, and as soon as it arrived the Government put it together, for the purpose, it is said, of ascertaining whether all the pieces had arrived; but so carelessly and loosely that some of the ironwork, which fitted well enough when the tower was put up at Coventry, had to be cut; showing that the building was not erected as it had been originally. The exposure to the weather has occasioned considerable injury from rust, shewing either that the tower was not painted with the proper paint, or that that paint is itself worthless. At all events it is certain the contract was broken by Mr. Skidmore in the third coat of paint not having been supplied.
According to Messrs. Mountfort and Luck’s design, the tower was to stand on the unfinished wooden basement at the south end of the buildings but Mr. Skidmore thought that no iron tower could be safely erected on a wooden basement, and he certainly gave weight to his opinion by sending out a tower which was too heavy to be so placed. We are therefore to have a new stone basement on which the chequered fortunes of this structure are at last to find repose.
Report says, that it is to be placed at some distance from the present pile of buildings, with a view to being some day joined to it again by intermediate offices. We hope Government will not sanction this idea. In the first place, the whole thing will look absurd until the tower is connected with the pile of buildings in the manner proposed, and it is very undesirable that the public taste should be offended for a considerable number of years by an incomplete design. Again, wherever it may be put, at a distance from the present buildings, it will be found to interfere with the wants of the Government, and with the ideas of the architect at some future time, and ten to one if there will not then be a proposal to pull it down and put it somewhere else.
We do hope that it will be erected somewhere in connection with the present pile of buildings where it is permanently to stand, and where it will constitute an ornamental appendage to the existing structure; leaving the question of future additions to the building unhampered by the necessity of working up to an isolated tower, standing at some distance. We have no doubt, notwithstanding the differences of opinion which have occurred in its design, that the iron tower once erected on a proper stone basement, and filled in with the encaustic tile work sent out, it will obtain that full amount of admiration which it s deserves, and by shewing the time on four faces of the clock, will be considered a great boon to the people of Christchurch. 
Consignment to Mr Anderson’s Furnace?
By June 1863, the ‘White Elephant of Canterbury’ had gone from its position in the central court of the Provincial Government buildings. The question became whether it would reappear in a more appropriate position or, as the Lyttelton Times wondered, be consigned to Mr Anderson’s furnace.  A report in the Press lamented the loss and ill treatment of this ‘really beautiful tower’ which had been ‘put up at a considerable expense on its arrival… and had been left to decay since December 1860.’ 
The really artistic frame and spire for the clock, placed on a suitable sub-structure… should be an ornament in itself, and one of which not only this province but the whole of New Zealand might be justly proud. If it be laughed at here, it is to be regretted; for it would certainly be admired by better judges in England. 
As the years progressed there was no shortage of ideas for the future of the iron tower…
The Clock Tower for the Museum?
The clock tower was offered to the Canterbury Museum as part of one of the competing designs submitted to the Government in 1865 – but they did not want it either.
To return, however, the iron clock tower, now rusting in obscurity, appears to great advantage on a corner tower, and a façade of lofty pointed arches forms an effective portico. Some of the details of the tower we would modify or expunge as somewhat loose in design, and the staircase stepped, window is too near a repetition of the one now building in the Council Chamber, to be repeated in such near neighborhood but altogether the exterior is pleasing and effective, the iron spire being evidently the key note of the idea. And to say truth we should be right glad to see our old friend provided for – it is an excellent piece of workmanship and cost too much to be allowed to go to decay without being used. At the same time it is hardly fair by the other competitors that this tower, the existence of which was only known to one, or at all events the drawings of which were only known to one, should have been introduced into a competitive design. 
This design by Messrs Bury & Co. drew criticism from another competitor because they took “advantage of the knowledge they alone can possess of the natural desire on the part of the Government to ‘use up’ a certain clock tower they have had on the premises a long time, and which… was originally designed by the junior partner of the selected firm of architects, making it the chief feature of their design” 
The Clock Tower for the Fire Brigade?
Another attempt was made to find a place for the tower by the City Council in November 1867. The Chairman asked Superintendent Moorhouse to place it on the site of the artesian well in front of Cobb’s office on the corner of Cashel and High Streets, which was surrounded by an unsightly hoarding. Some councillors were concerned about the condition of the tower and the cost to erect it. Mountfort, who attended the meeting, had with him his plans for erecting the tower, which made provisions for drinking fountains, fire alarm, etc, – and in the lower storey there would be enough room for a fire engine. The height of the structure would be about 70 feet, and would cost about £650, but to stem any criticism of the cost, he also offered the option of a plain base which could be erected for about £250. Chairman Wilson thought the cost too high, claiming that a ‘tank’ made of brickwork would be equally suitable and made cheaper.
The Clock Tower for a new City Hall?
One provincial councillor, by the name of Andrews, had not lost sight of the tower still stored away in the Council sheds, but wanted to know if the government had. At a council meeting in 1873, he said he wanted the superintendent to commit funds to erecting a suitable base for the tower for the Christchurch Fire Brigade. However after being accused of standing in the way of a gigantic scheme by the Mayor for the erection of a city hall costing £30,000, he decided not to proceed with his motion and the clock tower continued to lay to waste in the works yard. 
However his idea persisted, and when the Provincial Council passed a motion to apply to the government for a grant for the erection of a city hall, they also asked that it might be used by the City Council for the proposed city hall. 
When the call for designs went out five years later for the Town Hall and Municipal Offices, a clock tower was specified as being a ‘prominent feature in the design’ part of the specification, but no direct requirement that it must be the one from the Provincial Buildings. 
The Clock Tower for the Asylum?
The Steward and Keeper of Sunnyside Lunatic Asylum, Edward William Seagar, had witnessed the tower being put together and erected when it had arrived from England in 1860. He had also witnessed it being taken down. Supported by the architect, Benjamin Mountfort, he wrote to the Provincial Secretary in July 1874, asking if the government would ‘hand it over’ so it could be erected at Sunnyside as “it would suit admirably the purpose required, it would save the cost in the erection of a wooden structure”. The Institute could facilitate the carrying of the structure to the asylum as they had their own dray, and the available labour to erect it – essentially costing the government ‘nil’. We know from history that the Tower never made it to Sunnyside, but continued to waste away unappreciated in the Works’ yard. 
The Clock Tower for the East?
During a visit by the Premier George Grey, to Christchurch in 1879, the Mayor took the opportunity to bring to his notice the “works of a public clock and iron tower of an ornate and expensive character lay hidden away somewhere in the waste places of the Provincial buildings, and requested that they should be made over to the city” so it could be erected in some suitable position. The Premier at once complied, and it was handed over to the City.
It was proposed the tower be placed in the grounds of the East Christchurch School, but as the grounds did not belong to the City Council they had no power to expend money upon property that was not their own.  The Chairman of the East Christchurch School Committee said the school would be happy to take responsibility for the clock and tower, and proposed erecting in on the main school in Gloucester street. 
Some Councillors ‘longed for power to call for tenders to bury the structure’ and another member stated that the suggestion had been made that a deputation should beg Sir George Grey to take the tower back again! According to the resolution of the Council, the tower is now to be placed on the East Belt, in a line with Worcester street. 
The Clock Tower for Latimer Square?
In 1880 it looked like it might make a reappearance as part of improvements in Latimer Square:
Cr. King will move next Monday:- ” That this Council take immediate steps to lay out Latimer square in an ornamental way, and to plant trees and shrubs of suitable kind, and also to have the clock tower, presented by the General Government to the city of Christchurch, erected in the centre, and in connection with the same to have attached the fire-bell presented by the Union Insurance Company. 
TO THE EDITOR OF THE PRESS. Sir, – l see in your report on the 20th inst. of the proceedings of the weekly meeting of the City Council that Cr. King proposed to vote £300 for improvements in Latimer square, including the erection of the clock tower presented to the city of Christchurch by the General Government, provided that the sum of £150 be subscribed locally for the above object. If by the clock tower is meant that hideous piece of ironwork in the Council’s yard on Oxford terrace, then I hope the locality will not subscribe the suggested £150, as the clock tower never could have been designed by an architect, but must have been the work of a very common blacksmith. Boil the wretched thing down – l mean melt it down – and don’t let it disfigure Latimer or any other square. Yours, &c, Caution. Christchurch, April 21st. 
The Clock Tower for the Railway Station?
The Star lobbied vigorously through its pages for the Clock Tower be erected outside the Christchurch Railway Station, but their idea met with opposition from the public and the council, and it continued to lie ‘rusting amongst the marine stores and water-carts by the river-side’, the clock itself atop the Provincial Government Buildings.
Nobody knew where to put the clock tower; nobody felt inclined to spend money in providing it with a base. The fight died down, as fights will, when everybody’s business is nobody’s. The white elephant with a coat or two of hematite or red paint, has slumbered since in the picturesque corral in Worcester street.
The Clock Tower for Ashburton?
The Ashburton Guardian also thought it a worthy acquisition for their town’s Jubilee Memorial – if the Christchurch City Council could be persuaded to part with it ‘at a reasonable figure’. 
The Clock Tower for The Queen!
By August 1897, with £500 raised through public subscriptions, the site for the clock tower had finally been chosen – “the triangular ground opposite Messrs Hubbard, Hall and Co’s premises” as shown in the photo. The duty of the Council and Subscribers then turned to the selection of the design for the base of the clock tower. Sealed designs were presented from a number of architectural firms, and on 20 August, 1897 ‘Victoria C’ was chosen as the winner, even though the design would cost £150 more than the money raised. The selection committee, representing the subscribers, believed that “the erection of the clock on a proper base and in a suitable position would not only be a great ornament to the city, but of great public utility” and resolved to recommend to the Council to vote the balance of the money required to complete the work if the architect could submit an approved tender within 10 per cent of the price named. The sealed envelopes were opened, and it was discovered that Messrs Strouts and Ballantyne were the architects whose design had been approved.
A middle aged Christchurch gentleman, who had grown up in Coventry, remembered watching the erection of the tower as a boy. His father had supplied the portable forges which were used in its construction – and apparently were never paid for. Never-the-less he was happy to contribute his guinea to the Clock Tower fund. 
Tenders were then sought and approved for the construction of the base and its installation, the latter going to the company of Messrs Haig & Co, who submitted the lowest price of £555. The Canterbury Industrial Association wanted ‘Colonial’ cement to be used in its construction and petitioned the City Surveyor to this effect, with the final decision being given to the architects. Portland cement was to come from the works of John Wilson & Co, in Warkworth, North Auckland, who supplied a guarantee that the product was as good as the imported version. 
Laying Foundation Stone
At 3 o’clock on the afternoon of the December 9th, 1897, in one of his last duties as Mayor, Mr. W. H. Cooper laid the foundation stone, equipped with a silver trowel presented to him especially for the occasion.
With the stone work underway, work began early in the new year on dismantling the clock tower in the City Council yard. By April the tower was in position, surmounted by the newly gilded finial. Paintwork followed in May, with the iron work painted a “chocolate colour and a brick red, the latter tint being applied to those portions of the roofing which are made to resemble tiles.”
The tower also consisted of clock and bells suspended horizontally in a massive oak frame, “which could be taken to pieces with the aid of an ordinary screw hammer”. The clock had been built in 1860 by John Moore & Sons of Clerkenwell Close in London, and was returned to them for alterations and repairs in 1898. The large white dials were five feet in diameter, with copper hour figures, minute divisions and hands, which were both enamelled black.
The five bells, made by John Warner and Sons, were hemispherical in shape and chimed in notes A, G, F, C and B flat. The first four made up what was known as the Westminster Chimes, while the B flat bell gave the hour. The sound of the bells was checked by the organist at Westminster Abbey, before they were shipped off to Moore and Sons, and the whole lot; bells, clock and frame, shipped back to Christchurch for erection. This precious cargo left London on September 1st, 1898 on board the ‘Tokomaru’, and was carefully unloaded at the Tower at noon on November 21, 1898 – having taken as long to come from Lyttelton to Christchurch as from Capetown to Lyttelton. 
And so the Clock Tower was finally re-erected and became a city landmark. Any shop owner in the vicinity only had to advertise themselves as being located at ‘the Clock Tower’ for everyone in Christchurch to know their location.
Meeting Place of Passive Resisters
During 1912 and 1913, the Clock Tower became the rallying point for passive resisters and anti-militarists. Addresses were given there on most Saturday nights, and these caused obstructions to traffic, resulting in police summonses and what were called in the media, the ‘clock tower’ cases. There was no by-law at the time prohibiting speaking at the Clock Tower, but the offense was that the speakers drew a crowd, and that crowd caused an obstruction.
By the time students from Canterbury College held their ‘anti-anti-militarist demonstration’ at the clock tower on capping day in June 1913, the City Council had closed the meetings down. 
The Clock Tower for the Triangle?
Agitation of another kind occurred for the removal of the clock tower in 1929. The Mayor at the time, the Rev. J. K. Archer, viewed the clock tower as ‘a nuisance’ and was all for scrapping it as the City Council was having trouble finding a suitable alternative location. 
The Canterbury Automobile Association claimed that “every motorist must want to see the structure removed. It was responsible for the congestion in a very busy part of the City and it also resulted in obstruction of vision”. The President of the Association supported a plan suggested by the City Engineer, Mr A. R. Galbraith, that it be removed to the triangle in front of the Excelsior Hotel, where it would be out of the way of traffic.
The likelihood of accidents in this part of town was considered high at the time, contributed in part by the presence of the Traffic Inspector on point duty on the south side of the Tower, causing some motorists to try to avoid him by cutting in behind the Tower from High Street to Bedford Row.
A night out ends in tragedy at the Clock Tower
Coming home from a Saturday night out at Dixieland Cabaret on March 30, 1929, John Clark was driving down High Street with three friends in his car, when he attempted to turn into Manchester Street at the clock tower. It had been raining, visibility was poor and the streets were greasy. It appears Clark was travelling at excessive speed – in the region of 40 miles per hour – the car slid, losing control, and ploughed sideways into a telephone pole, spinning like a top about four times. Maureen Mitchell, a 25 year old from St Albans, was sitting on the left side of the car, and took the full force of the impact. She was thrown from the car. Her injuries were fatal and she died on the way to hospital. Another passenger was lucky enough to escape with a broken arm. Clark and the third passenger were uninjured. 
The court case which followed stirred considerable public interest because of the ever-increasing traffic and accidents at the Clock Tower. but also because Clark’s barrister was accused by a witness of trying to pervert justice.
The tower clock had also failed to operate accurately for some time – the Town Clerk received complaints about the erratic time on almost a daily basis.  The eastern dial was half a minute behind the northern, the western another thirty seconds behind, and the southern dial a minute and half behind. 
The Clock Tower intersection was also undergoing big changes, starting with the removal of a corner block for the construction of the £60,000 Majestic Theatre in early 1929. Strange’s building underwent alterations also, putting in an arcade of 12-15 shops.  All of this contributed to the removal of the Clock Tower in July 1930 and re-erection in October in a new location at the junction of Victoria, Salisbury and Montreal streets.
New Name, New Chimes and a New Colour Paint
The story of the clock tower moves forward to 1973 when public comment began to surface about the tower’s drab appearance. Opinion slowly built up and in 1975 the Christchurch City Council’s engineers department prepared a report on the tower’s condition. In short it recommended an overhaul and repaint.
Council approval of the recommendation was forthcoming and Victoria Street painting contractor, Alfred Brown and Co., was approached.
As it happened, a staff member of this firm, Bruce Whiteside, had taken a personal interest in the clock tower for some time. He had commented to his Managing Director that the tower looked drab, and it would be greatly enhanced if chimes were added during restoration. What he didn’t realise at the time was that the clock had been fitted with chimes previously when it was erected in High Street, but these had been removed when it was shifted as they had ‘proved unsatisfactory’.
Mr. Whiteside approached the Christchurch City Council’s architects division with this suggestion. Funds for the chimes could be found if some of the other clock tower restoration work was carried out voluntarily with materials donated. He believed the whole project could be carried out as a community venture.
But would the residents living near the clock tower agree to having a clock chiming every hour? They were surveyed and showed support for the chimes – with only four out of 129 against the idea.
Mr. Whiteside suggested a taped version for the chimes be used because of the weight problem. This was installed but when the sound level was set for the first time it was far too quiet, so over a week or so the level was increased incrementally and no one was any the wiser.
Once the scaffolding was up the full extent of the deterioration of the spire and belfry became apparent, and major restoration was the only answer. The tower’s metalwork was repaired, sand blasted, sprayed and the old red oxide colour painted over with antique bronze, to prevent rust stains showing up in future years.
During the restoration the team discovered the clock tower’s original wrought iron work – railings, scrolls and finials – had been gold leafed, work which had been carried out when the tower was installed on the High Street intersection. 
In honour of its original intent, the clock tower was to be renamed the ‘Provincial Government Clock’ but it still remains popularly known as the Jubilee Clock. 
The clock tower disappeared under protective cladding again in June 2003, whilst it under went further major restoration work. The tower, now classified by the NZ Historic Place Trust of national and regional importance, underwent $285,000 worth of upgrading, including structural strengthening, stone masonry repairs, refurbishment of the clock, re-roofing and enhancement of the tower’s architectural details. It was unveiled officially on 16 February, 2004, revealing a new colour scheme based on similar Victorian English clocks, and gilding on the ironwork.
One of the keys to reviving the inner city has been making sure that we hold onto as much of the best of our past as we can. This is a bit of the best. Of the past, the present, and the future.
Garry Moore, Christchurch Mayor 1998- 2007, at the unveiling, 16 February 2004.
- The Cashmere Hills Domain was described by one newspaper correspondent as a ‘rough piece of country on the Port Hills‘ which involved the ‘erection of a massive pavilion, built of stone‘
- Councillor Powell preferred some work of benefit to those who needed help, such as a home for orphan children. Source: The Record Reign, Star, Issue 5832, 27 March 1897, Page 6.
- Clutha Leader, Volume XXIV, Issue 1201, 2 July 1897, Page 6.
- Lyttelton Times, Volume X, Issue 632, 27 November 1858, Page 4.
- £1000, was the Council’s estimated expenditure for the financial year 1861-62. Lyttelton Times, Volume XVI, Issue 942, 20 November 1861, Page 3.
- Shipping News, Lyttelton Times, Volume XIV, Issue 842, 5 December 1860, Page 4.
- Press, Volume III, Issue 190, 11 June 1863, Page 3.
- Image: Alexander Turnbull Library 1/4-002584-G.
- Image attributed to Barker, Alfred Charles, photographer, 1858-60. National Library of New Zealand, Ref. No. O.039062.
- Press, Volume II, Issue 35, 18 January 1862, Page 1.
- Mrs. Grundy and the Critic. Press, Volume IV, Issue 370, 6 January 1864, Page 2.
- Lyttelton Times, Volume XIX, Issue 1105, 13 June 1863, Page 4.
- Press, Volume III, Issue 190, 11 June 1863, Page 3.
- Mrs. Grundy and the Critic. Press, Volume IV, Issue 370, 6 January 1864, Page 2.
- Weekly Press, October 6, 1897.
- Press, Volume VII, Issue 788, 9 May 1865, Page 2.
- Lyttelton Times, Volume XXIII, Issue 1399, 13 May 1865, Page 5.
- Press, Volume XII, Issue 1559, 5 November 1867, Page 2.
- Press, Volume XXI, Issue 2598, 2 December 1873, Page 3 and Star , Issue 1899, 4 April 1874, Page 2.
- Star, Issue 1837, 20 January 1874, Page 2.
- The Designs for the New Municipal Buildings, Press, Volume XXXII, Issue 4363, 24 July 1879, Page 3.
- Provincial Papers, Archives New Zealand, Christchurch Office.
- Star, Issue 3575, 25 September 1879, Page 2. Star, Issue 3549, 26 August 1879, Page 2; Press, Volume XXXII, Issue 4391, 27 August 1879, Page 3.
- Star, Issue 3567, 16 September 1879, Page 3.
- Star, Issue 3772, 18 May 1880, Page 2.
- Press, Volume XXXI, Issue 4462, 18 November 1879, Page 2.
- Press, Volume XXXIII, Issue 4595, 23 April 1880, Page 3.
- Star , Issue 6479, 23 February 1889, Page 2.
- Ashburton Guardian, Volume V, Issue 1597, 30 June 1887, Page 2.
- Clutha Leader, Volume XXIV, Issue 1201, 2 July 1897, Page 6.
- Colonial Cement, Star, Issue 5986, 27 September 1897, Page 3.
- Sources: Auckland Star, Volume XXIX, Issue 180, 2 August 1898, Page 8.
Star , Issue 6340, 21 November 1898, Page 3. Star, Issue 6305, 27 September 1898, Page 1.
- Ashburton Guardian, Volume XXXIII, Issue 8522, 31 March 1913, Page 2; Maoriland Worker, Volume 4, Issue 111, 2 May 1913, Page 6; Evening Post, Volume LXXXV, Issue 140, 14 June 1913, Page 9.
- Evening Post, Volume CVIII, Issue 65, 13 September 1929, Page 8.
- Press, April 9, 1929, page 13.
- Auckland Star, Volume LX, Issue 76, 1 April 1929, Page 10 and Evening Post, Volume CVII, Issue 98, 30 April 1929, Page 15.
- Auckland Star, Volume LX, Issue 107, 8 May 1929, Page 10.
- Evening Post, Volume CVIII, Issue 24, 27 July 1929, Page 10.
- Evening Post, Volume CVIII, Issue 65, 13 September 1929, Page 8.
- Star, Issue 9002, 8 August 1907, Page 3.
- Ellesmere Guardian, Volume XLVII, Issue 3323, 17 May 1929, Page 3; also Issue 3290, 22 January 1929, Page 7.
- Old Christchurch by Johannes Andersen.
- Sources: Dulux Digest, published by Dulux New Zealand Limited, Winter 1978 and the personal story provided by Mr. Bruce Whiteside.
- The Star, 31st May, 2000.
- Christchurch City Council Press Release, 9 February, 2004.