A Tale of Convicts, Ship Wrecks, Strange Family Relations and a £500 Bequest.
Before the Canterbury Settlement was inaugurated, a young Australian lad landed at Port Cooper in the company of his father. It was 1844, and 17 year old John Thomas Peacock had arrived from Sydney on board his father’s brig ‘Guide‘, an ageing and barely seaworthy former pilot boat. Captain Peacock had bought the vessel – used to ship coal from Newcastle – in June 1840, for £1,350. 
The ship was built of teak, iron fastened, every bolt of which had corroded and let in water. You could push the old bolts out with your finger, and to show the risk we unconsciously ran, when we stripped the copper sheeting off, not being held by anything else, several planks fell out on to the staging, to the danger of the carpenter’s toes. So it must be evident that we poor mariners had a good change of going to Davy Jones’ lock in a hurry.” John Thomas Peacock. 
Born in Hawkesbury, New South Wales, in 1827, John Thomas Peacock was the eldest son of John Jenkins Peacock – a mariner, merchant and property owner – and his wife, Maria Parsonage, who was the daughter of convicts. Her father, Thomas Parsonage, had been sentenced to hang for stealing a horse, however he escaped death and was transported to the Colonies for life in 1799. Some 13 years later he was granted a pardon. Maria’s mother, Mary Jones, arrived in Australia in 1801, to serve her sentence for stealing drapery from a private home.
The couple had three children, born in Sydney. Their son, Edward became a carpenter. Their daughter, Mary worked as a servant before she married convict Michael Gannon, who had worked in the same house. Another daughter, Maria, also worked as a servant in the same house before she married on 8th February 1827. 
Robbed by Escaped Convicts
After their marriage, Maria and John Peacock built a Georgian stone farmhouse in Lower Portland, Hawkesbury, in 1826, which became known as Peacock’s. When John junior was just four years old, the family endured a frightening home invasion. At 9pm, on one evening in 1831, three runaway convicts entered their home, put the family under guard and plundering the house for an hour, taking cash and anything movable. After releasing the family, the convicts requested – and received – refreshments before leaving with their plunder in Peacock’s boat. Early the next morning, Peacock set off with a posse and tracked the convicts to a cave where they were regaling themselves on his stolen wine, bread and meat. Guns were fired and one convict was shot in the arm – which later had to be amputated – whilst the other two seemed to think better of it and surrendered. Peacock was able to recover his stolen goods and his boat. 
In 1837, two vessels his father owned were wrecked by the same commander in the space of two months.  John suffered severe losses in his shipping interests and so John jnr, who was being educated at Sydney College, left school early in order to assist his father. Embarrassed by so many debts and heavy liabilities, and fearing the debtors’ prison, John snr had been unable to pay debts amounting to £3,620, and was declared insolvent in 1843. 
In addition to business losses, the family suffered tragedy when their second son, William Edward, died in February 1841 at only 11 years of age. 
Sailing for New Zealand
On 20th January 1844, the brig Guide sailed from Sydney for New Zealand with father and son on board. Peacock snr already had links to the colony; he had traded New Zealand pine in 1834 from his wharf and premises in Sydney, situated between the Albion Mills and Market Wharf. He had also traded with local Maori in Pelorus Sound, apparently purchasing land in October, 1839, from Abutto, chief of Tetaranga, and E Ko-koi, for cash and merchandise to the value of £50 sterling. 
After visiting Wellington and Nelson, they traded whale oil ‘down the coast’, visiting Kaikoura, Akaroa, Little Port Cooper, Port Chalmers, Bluff and Stewart Island. They picked up a few barrels of oil, some pigs and cattle, before making their way back to their home port of Sydney. They made several trips back and forth during the same year. Whales abounded on the coasts and during their voyages the Peacocks reported seeing them in the hundreds. Later Peacock jnr recalled how they could be so familiar as to rub themselves against their ship for amusement or to rid themselves of parasites. 
A Load of Pigs for Auckland
The Peacocks traded with local Maori from Kawhia and took a load of pigs to Auckland – who were very troublesome and kept jumping overboard when they tried to land them in Auckland. They feed the pigs on fern root, which they traded for tobacco. Peacock jnr carried tobacco stuffed inside his shirt. During a trading visit to one pa, he felt the hand of one local native go inside his shirt to try to steal the tobacco. John knocked him down, but he was set upon by the friends of the thief, who called out “Kill him!” Speaking in Maori, John pleaded with them. “This is cowardly! Don’t kill me without giving me a chance to speak“. He asked where the Rangatira was – he was sent for and, after John stated his case, they were allowed to continue unimpeded with their trade.
The Peacocks returned to trade gum at Hokianga, and gun powder for the Maori chief Patuone during the ‘troubles’ with Hone Heke. They were suspected of gun running and at one stage the Guide was closely shadowed by a British cruiser.
Hone Heke and the Northland Troubles
During Hone Heke’s war, the Guide lay in the Hokianga River where the Peacocks frequently saw large war canoes going up the river with natives, stripped to the waste, painted, embellished with feathers and armed. “I have seen as many as a hundred and ten men in a war canoe. There would be two Maoris standing up gesticulating and flourishing each his double-barrelled gun, beautifully polished, and singing a native song to give the time to the others, who were paddling and who joined in the song.”
According to Peacock jnr, a young native who was the brother of Tāmati Wāka Nene, induced them to supply him with a 28 lb key of powder, despite the prohibition. This was used in cartridges against Hone Heke, who was wounded. A few days later, Peacock received a message of thanks from Tāmati Wāka Nene for supplying the powder for what he called ‘Pikaka’s fight‘ – as he could not say ‘Peacock’. He also gave them a tame native Tui that could speak Maori. The bird returned with the Peacocks to Sydney where it astonished visitors to their home with its linguistic abilities. 
Shipwrecked in Nelson
On 4th January, 1846 they left Sydney once more on the ‘Guide‘, sailing for Taranaki and other ports. Whilst Peacock snr was on shore in Taranaki, the weather threatened and their captain decided to get underway immediately – as they had a load of cargo for Nelson – leaving Peacock snr behind. The bad weather continued en route and on the night of the 21st January 1846, the vessel was carried on the high seas into Wakapuaka Harbour, about 15 miles from Nelson, where it became beached and quickly took on water. The cargo was unloaded to the local pa, the cattle were able to be taken to Happy Valley but the sheep were too tired to be moved. 
According to Peacock snr, his young son, who he had left in charge with the assistance of the chief officer, was solicited to place the ship and all the cargo in the hands of Messrs Beit and Sons of Nelson – who had come down to the wreck – on the understanding that they would keep it safe until Peacock snr arrived from Taranaki. However Belt and Sons sold the best of the goods and refused to release anything unless large commission payments were made; 5% for assisting to save the cargo, 5% for sales commission, plus wharfage fees, store rent and other charges. Peacock was forced to pay, and handed over £600 for the return of what was left of his wrecked brig, with all her gear, rigging, anchors and chains, sails, and cargo, including what was left of the cattle and sheep. He was far from happy and wrote to the Editor of the Nelson Examiner detailing his treatment by Beit and Sons. The Editor of the paper was subsequently threatened with libel for printing Peacock’s letter. 
Having lost his vessel, Peacock snr obtained passage back to Sydney on the HMS Castor, which was returning from the Bay of Islands carrying officers of the 58th Regiment, crew from the H.M.S Osprey, invalid soldiers and seamen, plus a few passengers. On board was a sailor in the Royal Navy, George Hartley Merson, who had served in China, India and the Crimea. Just off Norfolk Island, while the ship was lying to, John Peacock was washed overboard during a heavy gale. Merson saved Peacock’s life and amongst the campaign medals he was later awarded, was one for “meritorious service in saving life.” 
John Jenkins Peacock set himself up in business as J. J. Peacock. He ran brigs, including the 200 ton Mountain Maid, the 128 Torrington, and a 139 ton Schooner ‘Despatch‘, which he sailed the length and breadth of New Zealand and across the Tasman – too many times to keep count – from 1853 to 1857, trading and carrying freight and passengers.
He sailed direct from Akaroa to Sydney in May 1853, carrying passengers, returning in August with his daughter. In May 1854, he was chartered by the Colonial Secretary to convey Members of the General Assembly from New Plymouth to Auckland to attend a sitting of the House. 
A Sydney Wedding
Following in his father’s footsteps, John Thomas Peacock engaged in trading around New Zealand and his home port of Sydney for 12 years. He returned home in 1854 and wed Kate Mansfield Hickman on August 17th. She was the only daughter of solicitor Joseph Mansfield Hickman of Gray’s Inn, London. She had arrived in Sydney from London on board the Prince Alfred, in December 1852, with her mother, Eliza, a widowed stay maker (corset maker) and her uncle, James Brown, a tailor. 
The newly weds settled in Wellington, but after the earthquake in 1855, they moved to Lyttelton where his father had established himself in business. Peacock snr was granted the right to build a wharf in 1857, located at the north west end of Dublin Street, and extending to a rocky point north west of Tribe’s Wharf, fronting Erskine Bay. This would become known as ‘Peacock’s Wharf’. He continued to skipper the Mountain Maid, carrying freight and passengers booked through J. T. Peacock & Co. They specialised in shipping sheep for farmers wanting to send their produce to Europe or Australia for sale, and were involved in a joint venture with two other merchants setting up in Lyttelton. The syndicate brought a brig called ‘Gratitude‘ from Sydney, which they dismantled and moored as a wool receiving depot so that sheep farmers would be saved the heavy charges of landing and wharfing. 
J. T. Peacock & Co
J. T. Peacock & Co. grew into a large company, operating out of the Port of Timaru and Norwich Quay, Lyttelton. They had a large variety of interests: buying and exporting grain, wool and other produce; owning ships; as well as stock and station agents. The business hit financial problems in 1867 and an announcement was made that the firm was suspended, owning upwards of £200,000. By this stage, Peacock snr had long retired, handing over the reins to his only son until he too retired in December 1862. Having succeeded in business, Peacock jnr retired at the age of 40 to his residence Hawkesbury, which was on the corner of St Alban’s Lane and Papanui Road. 
In 1868, Peacock snr and his wife, Maria arrived in Wellington on board the Ruahine. They were accompanied by their son John jnr, his wife, Kate and her mother, Eliza Hickman… alone with a mysterious ‘Miss Peacock‘. The same year, at the age of 70, Peacock snr died at his home in Fendall town Road in Christchurch.
Peacock jnr’s mother-in-law – who had come to live with them at Hawkesbury – died in 1871, age 62. This death was followed by that of his mother in 1884, aged 80. Ten years later, his wife passed away from a liver condition in 1894. But John didn’t remain a widower for very long. On December 30th of the following year he married a widow by the name of Janie McRae, at his home Hawkesbury.
Janie had married her first husband, Alexander, on 14 June 1877, at the St Alban’s Wesleyan Church, where the Peacocks were active church members. The family had lived at Peacock’s house for the greater part of their marriage and had produced two sons. Janie left Alexander in August 1884, and petitioned for divorce on the grounds of cruelty and adultery. The Judge thought there was abundant evidence of cruelty and granted a decree nisi. 
Janie’s maiden name had been Peacock, so possibly she was the mysterious ‘Miss Peacock‘ who had accompanied the family to New Zealand in 1868. She was believed to be the adopted daughter of John and Kate, born out of wedlock to one of their servants. She was 19 years younger than John Peacock and 14 years younger than Kate, her adopted mother. Her marriage to John – supposedly her adopted father – was indeed odd, and presumably a secret which the family desired to keep from public knowledge and hence avoid a scandal.
In 1898, Janie’s sons from her first marriage – John Alexander McRae and William Mansfield Hawkesbury McRae – adopted the surname Peacock. 
Like his father before him, Peacock jnr was an entrepreneurial colonist. He was credited with saving the Kaiapoi Woollen Mills from being sold for export. He founded the Union Insurance Company and was a member of the Lyttelton Harbour Board. He was also one of the largest proprietors of the Christchurch Tramway Company. Involved in politics, he became the first mayor of St Albans, was a member of the Provincial Council (1861) and House of Representatives for Lyttelton (until 1866), and was appointed to the Legislative Council. 
John Thomas Peacock died on 20 October 1905, leaving an estate valued at £110,659. He made many bequests including the Sailors’ Home in Lyttelton, the Destitute Patients’ Fund of the Christchurch Hospital, the Rhodes Convalescent Home, and £500 to the Christchurch Beautifying Association. 
In 1907, just two years after his death, Hawkesbury was pulled down to make way for smaller house sections. Adjoining the property was the beautiful residence and garden of Mrs Garrick which was advertised for sale in October 1905. She was Peacock jnr’s oldest sister, and had married an attorney, Francis Garrick, who came from Sydney and had attended school with Peacock jnr. Garrick had arrived in Canterbury in 1864, and joined in partnership with Cowlishaw in Cathedral Square. Like his friend and brother-in-law, he too had been successful in business. Upon his death in 1890, he left an estate worth around £110,000. 
The Peacock Fountain
“… no more taste than the gaudy decorations used by travelling showmen to embellish their merry-go-rounds”
Upon his death, J. T. left a bequest of £500 to the Beautification Association. He left no specifics about how it should be spent other than that it be used in ‘beautifying the Reserves and Gardens‘ in Christchurch and ‘in improving the River Avon‘. The Association chose a large and flamboyant bronze coloured cast iron fountain – an elaborate example of prefabricated metal from the Coalbrookdale Iron Works in Shropshire. It was reported in the Press that it had been designed by John Bell, who had exhibited at the Royal Academy in London, and had designed the ‘Americas‘ group for the Albert Memorial in 1864.
The Coalbrookdale foundry was renowned for their cast-iron work. They had worked closely with the Wills brothers in the mid to late 1800s, who under the artistic supervision of sculptors John Bell and William Theed, had modeled some of the first iron drinking fountains for the Metropolitan Free Drinking Foundations Association in London. 
Dolphins with water jets in each nostril…
The Peacock Memorial Fountain was described as being “...about 20 ft 4in high, consisting of a large four-way base, upon which are four dolphins (with water jets in each nostril, eight jets in all), water lilies, bullrushes, etc., from the centre of which rises an ornamental octagonal shaft, carrying a dish 10 ft in diameter, around which are twelve water jets, and four storks placed around a smaller octagonal shaft carrying another basin 5 ft 9in in diameter, having eight water jets. Above this is the rockery, leaves, and bullrushes in a pyramid shape, and on large central jet, the whole forming a design of good proportions and effect, and the jets of water when in play will be most effective.”
It featured storks, dolphins and leafage, apparently made from models by John Bell, with the accessory parts made under his personal direction, by well-known modellers. Bell was said to have frequently visited the works to oversee the work. If that had been the case, then the fountain would have had to be designed before his death in 1895. 
The fountain was shipped from England, assembled and erected in its own basin, and placed at the junction of a path leading from the Museum entrance to the gardens and the path branching from it towards the river. From one point of view it could be seen against a background of trees including a fine specimen of the Chilean Monkey Puzzle and pines from the Canary Islands and Australia. From another view the background was the Archery Lawn. 
A clump of shrubs was removed from the north-western corner of the lawn so the fountain could be viewed from all entrances into the gardens from Rolleston Avenue. After its erection, the water was turned on to full capacity to check it did not stray outside the base. The Beautification Association declared themselves well satisfied with the effect.
Violating every principle that goes to produce good ornament
Even though the fountain may have been an example of fine late Victorian style, it did nothing to satisfy the eye of Christchurch’s artistic elite.
When asked by one of his students what he thought of the new fountain, the Director of the School of Art, Robert Herdman-Smith told his students that “it was one of the most incongruous productions it had been my lot to see.”
“The fountain violates every principle that goes to produce good ornament; it is badly proportioned and poor in form. It, moreover, pretends to be what it is not. Cast-iron, coloured to imitate bronze, is, to say the least, a sham… but I venture to think there can be little doubt that beauty is entirely absent in this incongruous production.” 
He accused the Beautifying Association of bad taste, and lamented that “… to erect fountains which exhibit no more taste than the gaudy decorations used by travelling showmen to embellish their merry-go-rounds, cannot add to the good work of the association.”
“The contour is made up of a series of bulges, stuck on to the main structure; there is no subordination in any of the parts, and all the detail is fussy. In proportion, the base, with its wriggling dolphins, entirely overpowers the basins with their small, finicky bullrushes and water lilies, and could no doubt support several more stories than the Beautification Association was able to afford.”
“What I mean by poor in form, is poor in shape, lacking in sculpturesque conception, lacking in knowledge of modelled construction. The tawdry detail on the top of the fountain may be amusing to look at, but it soon tires the eye; in fact, the whole production, with its bronze paint, is tricky, dodgy, vulgarly imitative, trilling, by paltry, false, overforced sentiment, and by lack of appreciation of the elementary proprieties. I can’t help but feel that the sensitive spectator of taste must be startled by the sculptor’s ignorance of the power and limitation of his Art, and be repelled by the grotesque pantomimic representations to be seen on the fountain.” 
His comments in the Press unleashed a flurry of opinion, many in agreement, but some strongly in support of this work by such a renowned artist, claiming “although the School of Art has been in existence a great many years, very little good original design has been produced in the school.”
“Mr Smith admits there are various opinions of what goes to form beauty” one correspondent wrote in response. “Of course there are, and it is the opinion of many who are competent to judge that the fountain is a thing of beauty. It is well proportioned, and the dolphins, storks, etc.. are modelled in a manner worthy of the great artist who conceived it… I may also mention that competitive designs were called for locally, and those sent in were of very inferior quality” 
But the criticisms continued. One calling himself ‘Art Lover 2‘ wrote:
“The Garden fountain was chosen evidently by men who think that mere size, irrespective of proportion, gives dignity and that meretricious, gilt ornamentation gives richness. It looks a lot for the money. As a matter of fact, the fountain in its very size, is out of keeping with its surroundings. Viewed from the Archery Lawn, it has the effect of dwarfing the museum. Again, its apparently great weight, should be supported by a base on strong rigid lines, instead of which it is carried by what appears to be a bumble-jumble of loose stones, that look as though at any moment, they might slip out of position, and let crash to the ground the giant ornate piece of ironmongery.” 
With interest on the fountain heightening, the Press sent out a reporter to ask a number of artists and beauty lovers in Christchurch their opinion. They wanted to know what they thought of the Peacock Memorial Fountain and other changes that had been, and were still being made, to the public gardens.
They spoke to noted architect Samuel Hurst Seagar. He believed that when it came to a public body erecting work which has to stand in a public place, then the individual tastes of laymen should be laid aside and the opinion of artists taken. “… the opinion of trained men should be the only guide” he said. He had urged the Beautification Association instead to form a number of fountains in the small lake near the tea kiosk.
Two other artists, including James L. Balfour, disagreed and thought the fountain a “fine piece of design work“, its only impediment being its position; “set where it would have for its background conical trees. There was no contrast at all” 
Objections to its position continued to dog the Domain Board. When faulty settings in the fountain’s levels caused overflowing water which could not be dealt with, this provided a practical reason for the fountains removal. The gardens’ curator, James Young, proposed the fountain be placed in an ornamental lake to be formed in the Archery Lawn. The lake surface would be at ground level, and in addition to the fountain, avater jets in small rockeries would be placed throughout the lake, the total costing about £100. So in 1915, the fountain was removed from its cistern to the south-east corner of the Archery Lawn, with its base at ground level, and a small lake formed around it. 
As much a part of Christchurch as Scott’s statue or the Bridge of Remembrance
Whilst work on the Evelyn Couzins  memorial gateway, behind the Peacock Fountain, was underway in September 1940, the City Council took the opportunity to remove the fountain and fill in the irregular shaped pool in which it sat – much to the surprise and outrage of many. The Council claimed the fountain had not functioned for many years because of damage and cracks in the metal. Some suggested this was due to the Council’s neglect over a long period of time. Protest surrounding its removal followed as it had previously – but this time the fountain’s future was less clear.
When first installed in 1911, the fountain had drawn derision from champions of the arts, for its lack of taste or artistic merit. By 1949 it was still dividing opinion. “I must say that I think the gardens would be well rid of this exotic plant (ferrum horrible), a fine example of an over-blown Edwardian bloom… The pool, with its chewed edge, muddied runways for ducks and murky shallows, can best be described as a running sore of the Archery Lawn.” 
However many shared a similar view as the following writer to the Press, who wrote that the fountain is a “thing of stately beauty, which is as much a part of Christchurch as Scott’s statue or the Bridge of Remembrance.” 
Once the pond had been filled in, it was possible for the public to view and assertion for themselves the damage to the fountain. A Foundryman, writing to the Press, said he could not find any evidence of cracks and the fountain was a “monument to craftsmanship, not only of the moulders, but also of the woodworkers who in the first place made the patterns.” 
“Many Christchurch citizens played round this fountain as children,” wrote H. G. Royds  “It belongs to them and they should form a cordon round it and prevent this high-handed act of destruction.”
The City Council responded that if the fountain could be made serviceable again, they would re-erect it on a suitable site in the gardens.  However it wasn’t until 1996, that this would happen. A 47 year internment in storage would follow before it would again grace the Botanic Gardens – and draw renewed controversy.
- Australasian Chronicle 1840, June 16. “The Australian Auction Company sold on Friday last, the brig Guide, of 147 0.94 tons, to J. Peacock, Esq., for the sum of £1,350.”
- National Library of New Zealand, ID: A-438-002.
- Press, Volume LXII, Issue 12330, 21 October 1905, Page 4.
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- Pictorial History Hawkesbury Shire, by Michelle Nichols. The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 – 1842), Tuesday 3 January 1832, page 3.
- The 42 ton schooner, Richmond, bought for £500 in 1835, was stranded not long after on a bar for several months causing expensive damage. Two years later is was wrecked on a bar in M’Leay River. The schooner, Joseph Weller was wrecked off Nobby’s Island. Sources: Sydney Morning Herald Monday 26 October 1835, and the Sydney Monitor, Monday 27 March 1837.
- Sept 5, 1843, Sydney Morning Herald.
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- Press, Volume LVII, Issue 10840, 15 December 1900, Page 7.
- Alexander Turnbull Library, Reference: PA2-2721. Photograph by Elizabeth Pulman, circa 1870.
"In New Zealand’s Youth – some adventures in the North”. Press, Volume LVII, Issue 10840, 15 December 1900, Page 7, and Press, Volume LXII, Issue 12330, 21 October 1905, Page 4.
- The Cornwall Chronicle (Launceston, Tas. : 1835 – 1880), Saturday 7 March 1846, page 183, 184.
- Drawing by A. H. Messenger, after a sketch 1852. Source: The New Zealand Wars: A History of the Maori Campaigns and the Pioneering Period: Volume I: 1845–1864.
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- Image: National Library of New Zealand ID: 1/2-004777-F.
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- Photo by Standish and Preece. Source; The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Canterbury Provincial District]
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- Sources: Obituary, Star , Issue 8451, 20 October 1905, Page 3 and A Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, Volume II.
- Image: The Weekly Press, 15 Feb. 1905, p.48
Source: Christchurch City Libraries, File Reference CCL PhotoCD 16, IMG0015.
- Sources: Marlborough Express, Volume XXXVIII, Issue 282, 24 November 1905, Page 2, and Will and Probate of John Thomas Peacock, Archives New Zealand.
- Press, Volume LXIII, Issue 12878, 9 August 1907, Page 12.
- Public Sculpture of Staffordshire and the Black Country. By George T. Noszlopy, Fiona Waterhouse.
- Image: Christchurch City Libraries File Reference CCL PhotoCD 4, IMG0031
- The Peacock Memorial Fountain, Description of the Work. Press, Volume LXVII, Issue 14033, 3 May 1911, Page 11.
- Press, Volume LXVI, Issue 13861, 12 October 1910, Page 6.
- The Gardens’ Fountain. Press, Volume LXVII, Issue 14072, 17 June 1911, Page 5.
- Source: Christchurch & environs : the garden city of New Zealand, p. 11. Image: Christchurch City Libraries File Reference CCL PhotoCD 17, IMG0019.
- Press, Volume LXVII, Issue 14074, 20 June 1911, Page 9.
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- Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Libraries, AWNS-19190911-39-2
- Press, Volume LXVII, Issue 14077, 23 June 1911, Page 5.
- Press, 20 June 1911. Volume LXVII, Issue 14074.
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- Source: private postcard collection.
- Evelyn Couzins served as Mayoress of Christchurch during her Uncle’s term as Mayor, from 1941 until her death in 1945.
- “Hortus” October 5, 1949. Press, October 7, 1949, page 10.
- “Concerned” October 3, 1949. Press, October 4, 1949, page 8.
- “Foundryman” October 7, 1949. Press, October 8, 1948, page 8.
- H. G. Royds, September. 22, 1949; Press, September 23, 1949 ,page 10.
- Peacock Fountain. Re-erection if made serviceable. Press, October 5, 1949.